Financial Accounting with SAP - Quick Reference Guide

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作者 Vincenzo 2009年出版 分类:sap 1231

Financial Accounting with SAP - Quick Reference Guide 英文原版,官方出品。

Contents

Introduction ............................................................................................... 15

1 General SAP Configuration for Financial Accounting ................ 17

1.1 Countries ..................................................................................... 17

1.1.1 Defining Countries in mySAP Systems ............................. 19

1.1.2 Setting Country-Specific Checks ...................................... 21

1.1.3 FAQ and Troubleshooting Tips ......................................... 26

1.2 Currencies .................................................................................... 28

1.2.1 Creating a New Currency ................................................. 28

1.2.2 Setting Decimal Places .................................................... 30

1.2.3 Checking Exchange Rate Types ........................................ 32

1.2.4 Defining Translation Ratios for Currency Translations ....... 35

1.2.5 Entering Exchange Rates ................................................. 37

1.2.6 Manual Entry Versus Automatic Retrieval of the

Exchange Rate ................................................................. 38

1.2.7 FAQ and Troubleshooting Tips ......................................... 40

1.3 Summary ..................................................................................... 42

2 Organizational Structure: Definition and Assignment .............. 43

2.1 Definition of Organizational Entities Relevant to Financial

Accounting .................................................................................. 43

2.1.1 Company ........................................................................ 44

2.1.2 Company Code ................................................................ 46

2.1.3 Credit Control Area ......................................................... 53

2.1.4 Business Area .................................................................. 55

2.1.5 Consolidation Business Area ............................................ 57

2.1.6 Functional Area ............................................................... 57

2.1.7 Controlling Area .............................................................. 59

2.1.8 Operating Concern .......................................................... 61

2.1.9 FAQ and Troubleshooting Tips ......................................... 62

2.2 Assignment of Organizational Entities Relevant to

Financial Accounting .................................................................... 65

2.2.1 Company Code to Company ............................................ 66

2.2.2 Company Code to Credit Control Area ............................ 66

2.2.3 Business Area to Consolidation Business Area .................. 67

2.2.4 Company Code to Controlling Area ................................. 68

2.2.5 Controlling Area to Operating Concern ........................... 69

2.2.6 Plant to Company Code .................................................. 70

2.2.7 Sales Organization to Company Code .............................. 71

2.2.8 Personnel Area to Company Code ................................... 72

2.2.9 FAQ and Troubleshooting Tips ......................................... 73

2.3 Summary ..................................................................................... 74

3 General Ledger Configuration .................................................... 77

3.1 Company Code Settings ............................................................... 77

3.2 Parallel Currencies ........................................................................ 82

3.2.1 Defining Additional Local Currencies

(Maximum of Two) .......................................................... 83

3.2.2 Defining Additional Local Currencies with

Additional Ledgers (Classic General Ledger) .................... 85

3.3 Fiscal Year Variants ...................................................................... 87

3.3.1 FAQ and Troubleshooting Tips ......................................... 89

3.4 Configuring Charts of Accounts and General Ledger Accounts ...... 90

3.4.1 Defining Charts of Accounts ............................................ 90

3.4.2 Defining Account Groups ................................................ 93

3.4.3 Configuring Screen Layout for Creating, Displaying,

and Changing General Ledger Accounts .......................... 95

3.4.4 Defining Retained Earnings Accounts .............................. 97

3.4.5 FAQ and Troubleshooting Tips ......................................... 98

3.5 Configuring General Ledger Settings for Postings ......................... 99

3.5.1 Defining Document Types ............................................... 99

3.5.2 Defining Posting Keys ...................................................... 103

3.5.3 Maintaining Field Statuses from the General Ledger

Account .......................................................................... 107

3.5.4 Defining Number Ranges ................................................ 109

3.5.5 FAQ and Troubleshooting Tips ......................................... 112

3.6 SAP General Ledger Settings Only ................................................ 116

3.6.1 Defining General Ledgers ................................................ 116

3.6.2 Defining Ledger Groups .................................................. 117

3.6.3 Leading and Non-Leading Ledger Settings ....................... 119

3.6.4 Assigning Scenarios ......................................................... 121

3.6.5 Configuring Document Splitting ...................................... 123

3.6.6 Configuring Document Types and Number Ranges

for Non-Leading Ledger Postings ..................................... 128

3.6.7 Defining Segments .......................................................... 129

3.6.8 Defining Profit Centers .................................................... 130

3.6.9 FAQ and Troubleshooting Tips ......................................... 132

3.7 Validations and Substitutions ....................................................... 135

3.7.1 Validations ...................................................................... 135

3.7.2 Substitutions ................................................................... 145

3.7.3 FAQ and Troubleshooting Tips ......................................... 148

3.8 Automatic Account Determination .............................................. 150

3.8.1 Differences in General Ledger Account Clearing .............. 150

3.8.2 Exchange Rate Differences .............................................. 152

3.9 Summary ..................................................................................... 154

4 General Ledger Accounts and Postings ..................................... 155

4.1 General Ledger Accounting Master Data ...................................... 155

4.1.1 General Ledger Account Management ............................. 156

4.1.2 Primary Cost Elements .................................................... 174

4.1.3 Master Data Reporting and Utilities ................................ 177

4.1.4 FAQ and Troubleshooting Tips ......................................... 179

4.2 General Ledger Accounting Postings ............................................ 182

4.2.1 Posting with the Classic General Ledger ........................... 182

4.2.2 Posting with SAP General Ledger .................................... 192

4.2.3 Financial Accounting Documents Generated from

IDocs .............................................................................. 194

4.2.4 Editing General Ledger Documents ................................. 197

4.2.5 Clearing General Ledger Open Items ............................... 203

4.2.6 Reversal of Financial Accounting Documents ................... 207

4.2.7 FAQ and Troubleshooting Tips ......................................... 210

4.3 Tax on Sales/Purchases for Financial Accounting Documents ........ 216

4.3.1 Tax on Sales/Purchases Configuration .............................. 216

4.3.2 Tax Reporting .................................................................. 220

4.3.3 FAQ and Troubleshooting Tips ......................................... 222

4.4 Summary ..................................................................................... 224

5 Accounts Receivable and Accounts Payable .............................. 225

5.1 Customer Master Data ................................................................. 225

5.1.1 Configuring Customer Master Data ................................. 226

5.1.2 Managing Customer Master Data .................................... 235

5.1.3 Reporting and Utilities for Customer Master Data ........... 250

5.1.4 FAQ and Troubleshooting Tips ......................................... 255

5.2 Vendor Master Data .................................................................... 258

5.2.1 Configuring Vendor Master Data ..................................... 258

5.2.2 Managing Vendor Master Data ........................................ 264

5.2.3 Reporting and Utilities for Vendor Master Data ............... 271

5.2.4 FAQ and Troubleshooting Tips ......................................... 273

5.3 Configuring Business Transactions in Accounts Receivable

and Accounts Payable .................................................................. 275

5.3.1 Maintaining Payment Terms ............................................ 275

5.3.2 Defining Default Document Types for Enjoy

Transactions .................................................................... 280

5.3.3 Defining Payment Block Reasons ..................................... 281

5.3.4 Configuring Automatic Payments ..................................... 283

5.3.5 Configuring Dunning Procedures ..................................... 293

5.3.6 Configuring Interest Calculations ..................................... 295

5.3.7 Customizing Exchange Rate Calculations ......................... 301

5.3.8 Configuring Special General Ledger Indicators for

Accounts Receivable Posting ........................................... 305

5.3.9 FAQ and Troubleshooting Tips ......................................... 308

5.4 Accounts Receivable Postings ...................................................... 309

5.4.1 Financial Accounting Outgoing Invoices .......................... 309

5.4.2 Outgoing Credit Memos in Financial Accounting ............. 316

5.4.3 Manual Incoming Payments and Clearings ....................... 318

5.4.4 Posting and Clearing Down Payments .............................. 322

5.4.5 Posting with Special General Ledger Indicator ................. 324

5.4.6 Reporting Customer and Vendor Line Items .................... 325

5.4.7 FAQ and Troubleshooting Tips ......................................... 328

5.5 Accounts Payable Postings ........................................................... 331

5.5.1 Financial Accounting Incoming Invoices .......................... 331

5.5.2 Financial Accounting Incoming Credit Memos ................. 335

5.5.3 Automatic Outgoing Payments ........................................ 336

5.5.4 FAQ and Troubleshooting Tips ......................................... 341

5.6 Accounts Receivable and Accounts Payable Period-End

Functions ..................................................................................... 342

5.6.1 Automatically Clearing Open Items ................................. 342

5.6.2 Dunning .......................................................................... 346

5.6.3 Calculating Interest and Invoicing .................................... 351

5.6.4 Foreign Currency Valuation ............................................. 354

5.6.5 FAQ and Troubleshooting Tips ......................................... 357

5.7 Summary ..................................................................................... 358

6 Asset Accounting ....................................................................... 359

6.1 Configuring Asset Accounting ...................................................... 359

6.1.1 Copying Charts of Depreciation ....................................... 360

6.1.2 Setting the Chart of Depreciation for Customizing ........... 362

6.1.3 Assigning Charts of Depreciation ..................................... 363

6.1.4 Defining Asset Classes ..................................................... 364

6.1.5 Deactivating Asset Classes in Charts of Depreciation ....... 365

6.1.6 Defining Number Ranges for Asset Master Data .............. 366

6.1.7 Specifying Account Determination .................................. 367

6.1.8 Creating Screen Layout Rules .......................................... 368

6.1.9 Defining Evaluation Groups ............................................. 370

6.1.10 Defining Validations for Asset Master Data ...................... 372

6.1.11 Substitutions for Asset Master Data ................................. 375

6.1.12 Defining Depreciation Areas ............................................ 376

6.1.13 Specifying Transfer of APC Values to Another

Depreciation Area ........................................................... 379

6.1.14 Specifying the Transfer of Depreciation Terms

from Another Depreciation Area ..................................... 380

6.1.15 Integrating Depreciation Areas and the SAP General

Ledger ............................................................................. 381

6.1.16 Deactivating Depreciation Areas in Asset Classes ............. 383

6.1.17 Specifying General Ledger Accounts for APC Posting

and Depreciation ............................................................ 384

6.1.18 Specifying Posting Keys for Asset Posting ........................ 388

6.1.19 Specifying Document Type for Depreciation .................... 388

6.1.20 Defining Depreciation Area Currency .............................. 389

6.1.21 Maintaining Depreciation Keys ........................................ 391

6.1.22 Activating Controlling Objects for Posting in Asset

Accounting ..................................................................... 394

6.1.23 Activating Controlling Objects for Posting in Asset

Accounting per Company Codes ...................................... 395

6.1.24 Specifying Posting Rules for Depreciation ........................ 397

6.1.25 Transaction Types ............................................................ 399

6.1.26 Configuring the Asset History Sheet ................................ 404

6.1.27 Using Asset Accounting Enhancements (User Exits) ......... 407

6.1.28 FAQ and Troubleshooting Tips ......................................... 408

6.2 Asset Master Data Management .................................................. 411

6.2.1 Creating a Main Asset ..................................................... 411

6.2.2 Creating Sub-Assets ......................................................... 415

6.2.3 Blocking Assets ............................................................... 416

6.2.4 Deleting Assets ............................................................... 417

6.2.5 Creating Assets with Acquisition or Transfer

Transactions .................................................................... 418

6.2.6 Reporting on Asset Master Data ...................................... 419

6.2.7 FAQ and Troubleshooting Tips ......................................... 422

6.3 Posting Transactions to Assets ...................................................... 424

6.3.1 Posting Acquisitions with Automatic Offsetting Entries .... 424

6.3.2 Posting Acquisitions with Financial Accounting

Vendor Invoices .............................................................. 427

6.3.3 Posting Acquisitions from Logistics (Settlement from

WBS or Internal Order) ................................................... 428

6.3.4 Posting Acquisitions from Affiliated Companies ............... 430

6.3.5 Transferring Assets from Company to Company

(in the Same Client) ......................................................... 431

6.3.6 Transferring from Asset to Asset Within Company Codes .... 434

6.3.7 Posting a Retirement ....................................................... 436

6.3.8 Posting an Unplanned Depreciation ................................ 438

6.3.9 Changing an Asset Document .......................................... 439

6.3.10 Reversing an Asset Document ......................................... 440

6.3.11 Using the Asset Explorer .................................................. 441

6.3.12 FAQ and Troubleshooting Tips ......................................... 443

6.4 Depreciation and Other Periodic Postings .................................... 446

6.4.1 Executing Depreciation Runs ........................................... 448

6.4.2 Periodic Posting of Transactions ....................................... 451

6.4.3 FAQ and Troubleshooting Tips ......................................... 453

6.5 Year-End Activities ....................................................................... 455

6.5.1 Running Fiscal Year Changes ........................................... 456

6.5.2 Executing Fiscal Year Closings .......................................... 457

6.5.3 Reopening Closed Fiscal Years ......................................... 459

6.5.4 FAQ and Troubleshooting Tips ......................................... 460

6.6 Summary ..................................................................................... 462

7 Banking ...................................................................................... 463

7.1 Bank Data (Database of Bank Branches) ....................................... 463

7.1.1 Bank Data Manual Update .............................................. 464

7.1.2 Mass Update with Local Database ................................... 467

7.1.3 Mass Update with the BIC Database ............................... 469

7.1.4 Bank Branch Data Deletion ............................................. 472

7.1.5 FAQ and Troubleshooting Tips ......................................... 472

7.2 House Banks and House Bank Accounts ....................................... 473

7.2.1 Defining House Banks ..................................................... 474

7.2.2 Defining House Bank Accounts ........................................ 475

7.2.3 FAQ and Troubleshooting Tips ......................................... 477

7.3 Bank Chains ................................................................................. 478

7.3.1 Customizing Bank Chains ................................................ 478

7.3.2 Maintaining Bank Chains ................................................. 481

7.3.3 Bank Chains in Payments ................................................. 484

7.3.4 FAQ and Troubleshooting Tips ......................................... 485

7.4 Electronic Bank Statements .......................................................... 486

7.4.1 Configuring Electronic Bank Statements .......................... 486

7.4.2 Importing Electronic Bank Statements into SAP ............... 496

7.4.3 FAQ and Troubleshooting Tips ......................................... 504

7.5 Cash Journal ................................................................................ 505

7.5.1 Customizing Cash Journals .............................................. 506

7.5.2 Cash Journal Postings ...................................................... 511

7.5.3 Cash Journal Reporting .................................................... 518

7.5.4 FAQ and Troubleshooting Tips ......................................... 519

7.6 Summary ..................................................................................... 521

8 Special Purpose Ledger .............................................................. 523

8.1 Special Purpose Ledger Configuration .......................................... 523

8.1.1 Installing Table Groups .................................................... 524

8.1.2 Defining Field Movement ................................................ 526

8.1.3 Creating the Ledger ......................................................... 529

8.1.4 Assigning Companies or Company Codes to the

Ledger ............................................................................. 531

8.1.5 Special Ledger Settings for Company and

Company Codes .............................................................. 533

8.1.6 Assigning Activities to the Special Ledger ........................ 535

8.1.7 Configuring the Ledger Selection ..................................... 537

8.1.8 Configuring Validations and Substitutions ........................ 539

8.1.9 Configuring Manual Special Ledger Postings .................... 540

8.1.10 FAQ and Troubleshooting Tips ......................................... 547

8.2 Special Ledger Postings ................................................................ 552

8.2.1 Posting from Other SAP Components .............................. 552

8.2.2 Posting Within the Special Ledger ................................... 556

8.2.3 Actual Allocations in the Special Ledger .......................... 558

8.2.4 FAQ and Troubleshooting Tips ......................................... 559

8.3 Main Special Ledger Functionalities ............................................. 561

8.3.1 Balance Carryforward ...................................................... 561

8.3.2 Reconciliation Between Ledgers ...................................... 565

8.3.3 Actual Data Transfer ........................................................ 567

8.3.4 Deleting and Reposting Data ........................................... 570

8.3.5 Reconciliation Between Total Data and Line Items .......... 573

8.3.6 FAQ and Troubleshooting Tips ......................................... 574

8.4 Total Data Reporting .................................................................... 575

8.5 Other Special Ledger Functionalities ............................................ 578

8.5.1 Plan Data in the Special Ledger ....................................... 578

8.5.2 Rollup ............................................................................. 579

8.5.3 FAQ and Troubleshooting Tips ......................................... 586

8.6 Summary ..................................................................................... 587

Appendices .................................................................................... 589

A Tables and Views ................................................................................... 591

B Transaction Codes ................................................................................. 605

C Program Codes ...................................................................................... 621

D Menu Paths and Customizing Paths ....................................................... 625

E The Author ............................................................................................ 643


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