SAP Press - SAP ERP Financials - Configuration and Design (2nd)

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SAP Press - SAP ERP Financials - Configuration and Design (2nd) SAP财务会计配置与设计(第二版),英文原版,可编辑带导航非影印!

Contents
Acknowledgments .................................................................................... 19
1 Overview ................................................................................... 21
1.1 Introduction ............................................................................... 21
1.1.1 Approach ...................................................................... 22
1.1.2 Versioning .................................................................... 22
1.1.3 Learning Outcomes ....................................................... 23
1.2 Brief History of SAP .................................................................... 23
1.3 Different Types of Projects .......................................................... 24
1.3.1 Fresh Implementation Projects ...................................... 24
1.3.2 Upgrade Projects .......................................................... 25
1.3.3 Request-Based Support Projects .................................... 25
1.3.4 Production-Support Projects ......................................... 26
1.3.5 Rollout Projects ............................................................ 26
1.4 Points to Consider for a Successful SAP Implementation ............. 27
1.4.1 The Project Team .......................................................... 28
1.4.2 SAP Implementation: More Than an IT Project .............. 28
1.4.3 The Right Resources ...................................................... 28
1.4.4 The Gap Analysis ......................................................... 29
1.4.5 Project Testing .............................................................. 29
1.4.6 Cutover Plans ............................................................... 30
1.4.7 User Training ................................................................. 30
1.4.8 The Change Management Program ............................... 30
1.5 SAP Navigation Basics ................................................................. 30
1.5.1 Logging on to the SAP System ...................................... 31
1.5.2 Screen Structure in the SAP System ............................... 32
1.5.3 Creating Your Favorites List ........................................... 34
1.5.4 Calling Functions in SAP System ................................... 34
1.5.5 Accessing the Customization Area ................................. 35
1.6 Summary .................................................................................... 36
2 SAP Enterprise Structure .......................................................... 37
2.1 Building an Enterprise Structure .................................................. 38
2.2 Building a Project’s Straw Man ................................................... 39

2.2.1 Company Code ............................................................. 40
2.2.2 Cost Center ................................................................... 41
2.2.3 Proft Center ................................................................. 41
2.2.4 Chart of Accounts ......................................................... 42
2.2.5 Controlling Area ........................................................... 42
2.2.6 Business Area ................................................................ 42
2.2.7 Chart of Depreciation ................................................... 43
2.3 Designing the Straw Man ............................................................ 43
2.4 Confguring the Enterprise Structure ........................................... 44
2.4.1 Countries ...................................................................... 44
2.4.2 Currencies ..................................................................... 51
2.4.3 Defne Company ........................................................... 59
2.4.4 Defne Fiscal Year Variant .............................................. 60
2.4.5 Defne Posting Period Variant ....................................... 62
2.4.6 Defne Chart of Accounts .............................................. 64
2.4.7 Structure of the Chart of Accounts ................................ 66
2.4.8 Defne Credit Control Area ............................................ 67
2.4.9 Defne Company Code .................................................. 69
2.4.10 Assign Company Code to a Fiscal Year Variant .............. 71
2.4.11 Defne Controlling Area ................................................ 72
2.4.12 Defne Cost Center Group ............................................. 75
2.4.13 Activate Controlling Area Submodules .......................... 76
2.4.14 Functional Area ............................................................ 78
2.4.15 Operating Concern ....................................................... 79
2.4.16 Create a Default Proft Center ....................................... 80
2.4.17 Check Company Code Global Parameters ...................... 82
2.5 Summary .................................................................................... 84
3 Global Settings for Financial Accounting in SAP ERP
Financials .................................................................................. 85
3.1 What Is a Document in SAP ERP? ............................................... 86
3.1.1 Document Header ........................................................ 86
3.1.2 Line Items ..................................................................... 88
3.1.3 Master Data .................................................................. 88
3.2 Confguration of Global Settings .................................................. 89
3.2.1 Defne the Retained Earnings Account .......................... 89
3.2.2 Field Status Groups ....................................................... 91

3.2.3 GL Account Groups ....................................................... 98
3.2.4 Document Types ........................................................... 105
3.2.5 Document Number Ranges ........................................... 111
3.2.6 Purpose of Subledger Reconciliation Accounts .............. 114
3.2.7 Document Posting Keys ................................................ 115
3.2.8 Updating Layout for the Document Entry Screen .......... 118
3.2.9 GL Document Display and Layouts (Default Settings) .... 119
3.2.10 Document Change Rules ............................................... 121
3.2.11 Cross-Company Code Settings ....................................... 123
3.2.12 Employee Tolerances ..................................................... 124
3.2.13 Change Message Control for Posting to GL Accounts .... 126
3.2.14 Financial Statement Versions ........................................ 128
3.3 Sales and Purchase Tax ................................................................ 131
3.3.1 Basic Settings ................................................................ 134
3.3.2 Posting ......................................................................... 138
3.3.3 Changing Tax Laws in the United Kingdom and Europe ... 142
3.4 Summary .................................................................................... 143
4 New General Ledger ................................................................. 145
4.1 Overview of the GL ..................................................................... 146
4.1.1 The New GL .................................................................. 146
4.1.2 New Functionality ........................................................ 148
4.1.3 New Tables ................................................................... 149
4.1.4 Document Splitting ....................................................... 149
4.1.5 Parallel Accounting ....................................................... 151
4.1.6 Ongoing Use of Classic GL ............................................ 151
4.2 Building Your New GL Blueprint .................................................. 152
4.2.1 New GL or Classic GL? .................................................. 152
4.2.2 What Object to Split ..................................................... 152
4.2.3 Which Account Assignment Objects to Incorporate
into Your Model ........................................................... 152
4.2.4 How Document Splitting Fits in with Other Add-Ons ... 153
4.3 Confguration Steps to Activate the New GL ............................... 153
4.3.1 Activation of New GL Accounting ................................. 154
4.3.2 Defne Ledgers for GL Accounting ................................. 154
4.3.3 Segment ....................................................................... 160
4.3.4 Integrating the GL with Subcomponents ....................... 164
4.3.5 Document Splitting ....................................................... 174

4.3.6 Parallel Accounting ....................................................... 186
4.3.7 Setting Up Additional Ledgers ...................................... 188
4.3.8 CO Transfer Postings ..................................................... 190
4.3.9 Planning in the New GL ................................................ 190
4.3.10 Integration with Asset Accounting ................................ 191
4.4 IFRS Compliance ........................................................................ 192
4.4.1 IFRS 5—Noncurrent Assets Held for Sale or
Discontinued Operations ............................................. 192
4.4.2 IFRS 8—Operating Segments ....................................... 193
4.4.3 IAS 7—Cash Flow Statements ...................................... 193
4.4.4 IAS 10—Events after the Balance Sheet Date ............... 193
4.4.5 IAS 16—Property, Plant, and Equipment ...................... 194
4.4.6 IAS 19—Employee Benefts .......................................... 194
4.4.7 IAS 36—Impairment of Assets ..................................... 194
4.5 Summary .................................................................................... 195
5 Accounts Payable ...................................................................... 197
5.1 Overview of the P2P cycle .......................................................... 198
5.1.1 Purchase Order ............................................................. 199
5.1.2 Goods Receipt .............................................................. 199
5.1.3 Invoice Verifcation ....................................................... 200
5.1.4 AP Invoice .................................................................... 200
5.1.5 Outgoing Payment ........................................................ 201
5.2 Building an AP Business Model ................................................... 201
5.2.1 Design of Vendor Master Records ................................. 201
5.2.2 Invoice Processing Control ............................................ 202
5.2.3 The Payment Process .................................................... 202
5.3 Master Data ................................................................................ 202
5.3.1 Vendor Master Records ................................................ 203
5.4 Vendor Account Groups .............................................................. 205
5.4.1 General Data View ........................................................ 208
5.4.2 Company Code View .................................................... 210
5.4.3 Purchasing Data View ................................................... 211
5.4.4 Vendor Account Group Variations ................................. 212
5.5 Vendor Number Ranges .............................................................. 213
5.5.1 Business Decisions ........................................................ 214
5.5.2 Create Vendor Number Ranges ..................................... 215
5.5.3 Transporting Number Ranges ........................................ 216

5.5.4 Assign a Number Range to an Account Group ............... 216
5.5.5 Extending Vendors to Additional Company Codes ......... 217
5.6 Accounting Clerks ....................................................................... 219
5.7 Defne Sensitive Fields for Dual Control ...................................... 220
5.8 House Banks ............................................................................... 222
5.8.1 Confguring the House Bank .......................................... 223
5.8.2 Bank Master Records .................................................... 225
5.8.3 Defne Number Ranges for Checks ................................ 227
5.9 Invoice Processing ...................................................................... 228
5.9.1 Nonstock Invoices ........................................................ 228
5.9.2 Invoice Verifcation (Processing Stock Invoices) ............. 229
5.9.3 Duplication Invoice Check ............................................ 230
5.10 Document Parking ...................................................................... 231
5.11 Confguring Special General Ledger Indicators for AR/AP Down
Payment Postings ........................................................................ 233
5.12 Posting and Clearing Down Payments ......................................... 235
5.12.1 Posting Down Payments ............................................... 235
5.12.2 Clearing Down Payments .............................................. 238
5.13 Outgoing Payments Processing ................................................... 239
5.13.1 Processing a Manual (Outgoing) Payment ..................... 239
5.13.2 Vendor Tolerances ........................................................ 241
5.13.3 Automatic Posting of Payment Differences .................... 242
5.13.4 Cross-Company Code Manual Payments ....................... 244
5.13.5 Payment Block Reasons ................................................ 244
5.13.6 Automatic Payment Program ........................................ 248
5.13.7 Running the Automatic Payment Program ..................... 254
5.14 Cash Journal ............................................................................... 257
5.14.1 Confguring Cash Journals ............................................. 257
5.14.2 Cash Journal Postings .................................................... 264
5.15 Electronic Bank Statements ......................................................... 266
5.15.1 Confguring Electronic Bank Statements ........................ 267
5.15.2 Importing Electronic Bank Statements into SAP ............ 276
5.16 Summary .................................................................................... 279
6 Accounts Receivable ................................................................. 281
6.1 Overview of the Order-to-Cash Process ....................................... 281
6.1.1 Sales Order ................................................................... 282
6.1.2 Delivery Note ............................................................... 283

6.1.3 Billing Document .......................................................... 283
6.1.4 AR Invoice .................................................................... 283
6.2 Building an Accounts Receivable Business Model ........................ 284
6.3 Master Data ................................................................................ 285
6.4 Customer Master Records ........................................................... 285
6.4.1 The Nature of the Customer Database .......................... 286
6.4.2 Manual or Automatic Creation of Customer Master
Records ........................................................................ 287
6.4.3 Searching for Existing Customers (Matchcodes) ............. 288
6.4.4 Defne Account Groups ................................................. 290
6.4.5 Company Code or Activity Account Groups .................. 296
6.4.6 Extending Your Customers to Additional Company
Codes ........................................................................... 298
6.4.7 Customer Number Ranges ............................................ 299
6.4.8 Accounting Clerks ......................................................... 302
6.5 Finance Documents Global Settings ............................................ 303
6.5.1 Document Types and Number Ranges ........................... 303
6.5.2 Document Posting Keys ................................................ 303
6.5.3 Payment Terms ............................................................. 303
6.6 Customer Invoice Processing ....................................................... 304
6.7 Confguring Special General Ledger Indicators for AR/AP
Down Payment Postings ............................................................. 305
6.7.1 Posting and Clearing Down Payments ........................... 308
6.8 Customer Payments .................................................................... 311
6.8.1 Defning Customer Tolerances ....................................... 313
6.8.2 Write-off Amounts within Tolerance ............................. 316
6.8.3 Reason Codes ............................................................... 317
6.9 Debtor Management .................................................................. 319
6.9.1 Credit Limit Business Process ........................................ 320
6.9.2 Automatic Credit Control .............................................. 325
6.9.3 Dunning ....................................................................... 328
6.9.4 Confguring Interest Calculations ................................... 335
6.9.5 Calculating Interest ....................................................... 345
6.9.6 Head Offce Functionality ............................................. 347
6.10 Summary .................................................................................... 347

7 Asset Accounting ...................................................................... 349
7.1 Overview of Asset Accounting .................................................... 350
7.1.1 Implementation Considerations ................................... 350
7.1.2 Integration ................................................................... 351
7.2 Building Blocks of Asset Accounting ............................................ 351
7.2.1 Chart of Depreciation .................................................. 352
7.2.2 Asset Assignment to Organizational Units ..................... 353
7.2.3 Integration with the GL ................................................. 354
7.2.4 Structuring Your Fixed Assets Design ............................ 355
7.3 Building an Asset Accounting Business Model ............................. 355
7.4 Asset Accounting Confguration .................................................. 357
7.4.1 Copy Reference Chart of Depreciation .......................... 357
7.4.2 Assign Chart of Depreciation to a Company Code ......... 359
7.4.3 Specify a Number Assignment across Company Codes ... 360
7.4.4 Specify Account Determination ..................................... 361
7.4.5 Create Screen Layout Rules ........................................... 362
7.4.6 Defne Asset Number Range Intervals ........................... 364
7.4.7 Defne Asset Classes ..................................................... 365
7.4.8 Defne Depreciation Areas ............................................ 366
7.4.9 Specify Transfer of Acquisition and Production
Costs Values ................................................................. 368
7.4.10 Specify Transfer of Depreciation Terms .......................... 369
7.4.11 Determine Depreciation Areas in the Asset Classes ....... 370
7.4.12 Deactivate Asset Classes for Chart of Depreciation ........ 371
7.4.13 Defne how Depreciation Areas Post to the GL ............. 372
7.4.14 Maintain Depreciation Key ........................................... 373
7.4.15 Defne Base Method ..................................................... 374
7.4.16 Defne Declining Balance Method ................................. 377
7.4.17 Defne Multilevel Methods ........................................... 377
7.4.18 Maintain Period Control Methods ................................. 379
7.4.19 Activate Account Assignment Objects ........................... 380
7.4.20 Specify Account Assignment Types for Account
Assignment Objects ...................................................... 382
7.4.21 Assign GL Accounts ...................................................... 383
7.4.22 Parallel Ledgers in SAP New General Ledger and
Integration with Asset Accounting ................................ 386

7.4.23 Specify the Document Type for Posting Depreciation .... 389
7.4.24 Transaction Types .......................................................... 391
7.4.25 Confguring the Asset History Sheet .............................. 396
7.4.26 Defning Validations for Asset Master Data ................... 399
7.4.27 Substitutions for Asset Master Data .............................. 402
7.5 Asset Transaction Processing ....................................................... 404
7.5.1 Create a New Asset Master Record ............................... 404
7.5.2 Post Values to an Asset Using External Acquisition ........ 408
7.5.3 Working with Asset Explorer ......................................... 411
7.5.4 Post Transfers to Other Assets ....................................... 415
7.5.5 Post Retirements with Scrapping ................................... 418
7.5.6 Post Depreciation Run .................................................. 420
7.6 Current Asset Valuation .............................................................. 422
7.6.1 Inventory Valuation ...................................................... 422
7.6.2 Accounts Receivables Valuation .................................... 425
7.7 Summary .................................................................................... 429
8 Controlling in SAP ERP Financials ............................................ 431
8.1 Overview and Diagram ............................................................... 432
8.2 Subcomponents of the Controlling Component .......................... 433
8.2.1 Cost Element Accounting .............................................. 433
8.2.2 Cost Center Accounting ............................................... 433
8.2.3 Internal Orders ............................................................. 433
8.2.4 Proft Center Accounting .............................................. 434
8.3 Building a Controlling Model ...................................................... 434
8.3.1 Concept of Real and Statistical Postings ........................ 436
8.4 Confguration Settings in Controlling .......................................... 437
8.4.1 Basic Controlling Area Settings ...................................... 437
8.4.2 Cost Element Accounting .............................................. 443
8.4.3 Cost Center Accounting (CCA) ...................................... 449
8.4.4 Internal Order Accounting Confguration ...................... 456
8.4.5 Proft Center Accounting Confguration ......................... 463
8.5 Concepts of Periodic Reposting, Distribution, and Assessment .... 469
8.5.1 Periodic Reposting ........................................................ 470
8.5.2 Distribution .................................................................. 471
8.5.3 Assessment ................................................................... 473
8.6 Real-Time Integration of Controlling with Financial Accounting ... 476

8.6.1 Confguration Settings ................................................... 477
8.7 Cost Center Planning .................................................................. 480
8.7.1 Versions in Controlling .................................................. 480
8.7.2 Planning Layouts and Planner Profles ........................... 480
8.8 Summary .................................................................................... 485
9 SAP ERP Financials Integration ................................................ 487
9.1 Automatic Account Determination ............................................. 490
9.1.1 Inventory Movement Account Determination ............... 491
9.1.2 Billing: Revenue Account Determination ....................... 501
9.1.3 Payment Processing Account Determination ................. 508
9.2 Master Data ................................................................................ 510
9.2.1 Account Assignment Objects ........................................ 511
9.2.2 Document Types and Number Ranges ........................... 513
9.2.3 Payment Terms ............................................................ 514
9.2.4 Journal Entry Screen Layouts ......................................... 518
9.3 Integrating SAP Payroll with SAP ERP Financials .......................... 519
9.3.1 Employee Master Records ............................................. 520
9.3.2 Payroll Process .............................................................. 523
9.3.3 Wage Types .................................................................. 524
9.3.4 Symbolic Accounts ........................................................ 525
9.3.5 Automatic Account Determination ............................... 526
9.3.6 Finance Posting Variant ................................................. 530
9.4 Interfaces .................................................................................... 531
9.4.1 Purpose of the Interface ................................................ 532
9.4.2 Interface Design ............................................................ 533
9.4.3 Interface Testing ........................................................... 536
9.5 The Value of Integration Testing .................................................. 536
9.6 Summary .................................................................................... 537
10 Data Migration ......................................................................... 539
10.1 Key Principles of Data Migration ................................................. 540
10.2 The Six-Step Migration Model .................................................... 541
10.2.1 Source/Data Cleansing .................................................. 542
10.2.2 Field Mapping .............................................................. 543
10.2.3 Defne Programs ........................................................... 543

10.2.4 Records Mapping .......................................................... 544
10.2.5 Trial Loads .................................................................... 545
10.2.6 Cutover ........................................................................ 545
10.3 Inventory Transfer ....................................................................... 546
10.4 Open Items Transfer .................................................................... 547
10.5 Upgrade to SAP ERP 6.0 ............................................................. 547
10.6 Asset Accounting Legacy Data Transfer ....................................... 549
10.6.1 Defne Asset Transfer Date ............................................ 549
10.6.2 Create Legacy Assets ..................................................... 551
10.6.3 Transfer Balances .......................................................... 554
10.7 Create Your Own LSMWs to Assist in Data Migration ................. 555
10.7.1 Benefts of LSMW ......................................................... 555
10.7.2 Defne the LSMW Name ............................................... 557
10.7.3 Maintain Object Attributes ........................................... 558
10.7.4 Maintain Source Structure ............................................ 561
10.7.5 Maintain Source Fields .................................................. 561
10.7.6 Maintain Structure Relations ......................................... 563
10.7.7 Maintain Field Mapping and Conversion Rules ............. 563
10.7.8 Maintain Fixed Values, Translations, and User-Defned
Routines ....................................................................... 564
10.7.9 Specify Files .................................................................. 564
10.7.10 Assign Files ................................................................... 566
10.7.11 Create Load File ............................................................ 566
10.7.12 Upload Load File Data .................................................. 567
10.7.13 Create Batch Input Session ............................................ 569
10.7.14 Run Batch Session ......................................................... 570
10.7.15 Cross Application of LSMW .......................................... 572
10.8 Summary .................................................................................... 572
11 Period-End Closing ................................................................... 573
11.1 Fast Close with the New GL ........................................................ 574
11.2 Key Elements of a Period-End Timetable ..................................... 575
11.3 Dependent Activities Already Completed .................................... 575
11.4 Analysis of Period-End Activities ................................................. 575
11.5 Foreign Currency Valuation ......................................................... 582
11.5.1 Confguring Foreign Currency Valuations ....................... 582
11.5.2 Foreign Currency Valuation Processing .......................... 587

11.6 Classic GL versus the New GL ..................................................... 595
11.7 Summary .................................................................................... 596
12 SAP ERP Financials Reporting ................................................. 597
12.1 Building Your Reporting Suite ..................................................... 597
12.2 Reporting Tools ........................................................................... 599
12.3 Common Reporting Requirements .............................................. 600
12.3.1 Accounts Payable (AP) .................................................. 602
12.3.2 Accounts Receivable (AR) ............................................. 604
12.3.3 Asset Accounting (AA) .................................................. 605
12.3.4 General Ledger ............................................................. 606
12.4 Creating Basic Management Accounting Reports with Report
Painter ........................................................................................ 607
12.4.1 Decide on the Report Type ........................................... 608
12.4.2 Defne a Row ................................................................ 611
12.4.3 Defne a Column ........................................................... 613
12.4.4 Defne Formula Rows and Columns ............................... 615
12.4.5 Defne your General Data Selection .............................. 616
12.4.6 Report Layout ............................................................... 618
12.4.7 Other Report Layout Formatting ................................... 621
12.4.8 Assign Report Group ..................................................... 624
12.4.9 Change Report Group ................................................... 625
12.5 International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) ...................... 627
12.6 Parallel Accounting Approaches .................................................. 628
12.6.1 Accounts Approach ....................................................... 629
12.6.2 Special Ledgers Approach ............................................. 629
12.6.3 Multiple Ledger Approach in the New GL ..................... 630
12.7 Summary .................................................................................... 631
13 Implementing and Supporting SAP ERP Financials ................. 633
13.1 Implementing SAP ...................................................................... 633
13.1.1 Preparation ................................................................... 634
13.1.2 Design Phase ................................................................ 636
13.1.3 Build ............................................................................. 641
13.1.4 Final Preparation .......................................................... 645
13.2 Supporting Your SAP ERP Solution .............................................. 646

13.2.1 Go-Live Support (Stabilization) ..................................... 646
13.2.2 Long-Term Support ....................................................... 647
13.3 Summary .................................................................................... 650
The Authors .............................................................................................. 651
Index ........................................................................................................ 653

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